Masah (wipe) over normal socks

Question

Is it permissible to pray salaah behind someone who does masah on normal socks during wudhu?

Answer

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

It is not permissible to make masah (wipe) over the socks that are worn nowadays made from cotton, wool, and nylon, etc., according to any one of the A’immah Mujtahideen (Imaams of Ijtihaad). (Fiqhi Maqalat vol:2 by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani)

Imam Al-Kaasaani said: “If (the socks) are thin and let water through, then it is not permissible to wipe over them, according to scholarly consensus.” (Badaai as-Sanaai vol:1 p:42)

This is because Allah Almighty has ordered us in the holy Qur’an in surah Maa’idah that the feet should be washed during wudhu.

Therefore to act upon alternative (i.e to wipe the feet) we have to have some such hadith that are authentic and established from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) without any doubt, such as the hadith which speaks of wiping over leather socks.

However there is no such authentic hadith from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) on wiping over normal socks.

Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani writes:
“From all the collections of Ahaadith, there are only three Hadith (which speak about wiping over non leather socks). One Hadith is narrated by Bilal, Radi-Allahu anhu, the second by Abu Musa Ash’ari, Radi-Allahu anhu, the third by Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, Radi-Allahu anhu. The narration of Bilal has been recorded in M’ujam Sagheer Tabraani, and the narration of Abu Musa in Ibn Majah and Baihaqi.

However, Hafiz Zayla’ee (a far renowned Muhaddith) in his famous works, Nasbur-Raaya, Vol. 1, p. 183-184 has proven that both the Sanads (chain of narrators) are defective and weak. In regards to Abu Musa’s narration, Imaam Abu Dawood Sajastaani (R.A.), in his works of Sunan Abu Dawood, has written: “It (the Hadith’s sanad) is not continuous, nor is it reliable (strong).”(Bazhlul-Mujhood, Vol. 1, p.96)” (Fiqhi Maqalat vol:2)

Hadith of Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah:
Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that “The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) performed Wudhu and wiped over his socks and sandals.” (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Ibn Majah)

After narrating this Hadith imam Tirmidhi said, it is a good and sound hadith. However many other eminent hadith scholars have disagreed with Imaam Tirmizi.

Shaykh Al-Mubaarakfoori writes: “Many hadith scholars classed this hadith as weak. Imam An-Nasai said in Sunan Al-Kubra that the correct narration from Mugheerah is that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) wiped over leather socks. Imam Abu Dawud said, Abdur ibn Mahdi wouldn’t narrate this hadith because it is widely known from Mugheerah that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) wiped over leather socks.

Imam Baihaqi said, this hadith of Mugheerah is Munkar and it has been classed as weak by Imam Sufyaan Ath-Thawri, Abdur Rahman ibn Mahdi, Imam Ahmad, Yahya ibn Ma‘een, Ali ibn Al-Madini, Imam Muslim.

Imam An-Nawawi said: Al Huffaaz (Scholars of Hadith) unanimously agreed upon the weakness of this hadith and Imam Tirmidhi’s saying that it is Hasan Sahih is not accepted” (Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, vol:1 p:241)

As it is clear from the above discussion that the hadiths about wiping over normal socks are weak therefore we can’t use the weak hadith as evidence against the ruling of the Qur’an.

Hence the opinion of the majority of the scholars is that the wiping over thin cotton or linen socks is not permissible.

Therefore if one clearly sees an imam doing masah over the normal thin socks then he shouldn’t pray behind him.

However if the socks are thick and can be kept on the feet without being tied, and it is possible to walk in them then they are like the same quality as leather socks, therefore it is permissible to wipe over them according to the majority of the scholars.

في بدائع الصنائع: وَأَمَّا الْمَسْحُ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ، فَإِنْ كَانَا مُجَلَّدَيْنِ، أَوْ مُنَعَّلَيْنِ، يُجْزِيهِ بِلَا خِلَافٍ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونَا مُجَلَّدَيْنِ، وَلَا مُنَعَّلَيْنِ، فَإِنْ كَانَا رَقِيقَيْنِ يَشِفَّانِ الْمَاءَ، لَا يَجُوزُ الْمَسْحُ عَلَيْهِمَا بِالْإِجْمَاعِ، وَإِنْ كَانَا ثَخِينَيْنِ لَا يَجُوزُ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَمُحَمَّدٍ يَجُوزُ. (بدائع الصنائع، جلد:١، ص:٤٢، مكتبة دار الحديث)۔

و في تحفة الأحوذي: اعْلَمْ أَنَّ التِّرْمِذِيَّ حَسَّنَ حَدِيثَ الْبَابِ وَصَحَّحَهُ وَلَكِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْحَدِيثِ ضَعَّفُوهُ قَالَ النَّسَائِيُّ فِي سُنَنِهِ الْكُبْرَى لَا نَعْلَمُ أَحَدًا تَابَعَ أَبَا قَيْسٍ عَلَى هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةِ وَالصَّحِيحُ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ أَنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ انْتَهَى وَقَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ فِي سُنَنِهِ كَانَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ لَا يُحَدِّثُ بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ لِأَنَّ الْمَعْرُوفَ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ قَالَ وَرَوَى أَبُو مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيُّ أَيْضًا عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ وَلَيْسَ بِالْمُتَّصِلِ وَلَا بِالْقَوِيِّ وَذَكَرَ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ حَدِيثَ الْمُغِيرَةِ هَذَا وَقَالَ إِنَّهُ حَدِيثٌ مُنْكَرٌ ضَعَّفَهُ سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ وَيَحْيَى بْنُ مَعِينٍ وَعَلَيُّ بْنُ الْمَدِينِيِّ وَمُسْلِمُ بْنُ الْحَجَّاجِ وَالْمَعْرُوفُ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ حَدِيثُ الْمَسْحِ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ وَيُرْوَى عَنْ جَمَاعَةٍ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوهُ قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ هَؤُلَاءِ لَوْ انْفَرَدَ قُدِّمَ عَلَى التِّرْمِذِيِّ مَعَ أَنَّ الْجَرْحَ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى التَّعْدِيلِ قَالَ وَاتَّفَقَ الْحُفَّاظُ عَلَى تَضْعِيفِهِ وَلَا يُقْبَلُ قَوْلُ التِّرْمِذِيِّ إِنَّهُ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ انْتَهَى۔

وَقَالَ الشَّيْخُ تَقِيُّ الدِّينِ فِي الْإِمَامِ أَبُو قَيْسٍ الْأَوْدِيُّ اسْمُهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ ثَرْوَانَ احْتَجَّ بِهِ الْبُخَارِيُّ فِي صَحِيحِهِ وَذَكَرَ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ فِي سُنَنِهِ أَنَّ أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ يَحْيَى بْنَ مَنْصُورٍ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ مُسْلِمَ بْنَ الْحَجَّاجِ ضَعَّفَ هَذَا الْخَبَرَ وَقَالَ أَبُو قَيْسٍ الْأَوْدِيُّ وَهُزَيْلُ بْنُ شُرَحْبِيلَ لَا يحتملان وخصوصا مع مخالفتهماالأجلة الَّذِينَ رَوَوْا هَذَا الْخَبَرَ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ فَقَالُوا مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ وَقَالُوا لَا يُتْرَكُ ظَاهِرُ الْقُرْآنِ بِمِثْلِ أَبِي قَيْسٍ وَهُزَيْلٍ قَالَ فَذَكَرْتُ هَذِهِ الْحِكَايَةَ عَنْ مُسْلِمٍ لِأَبِي الْعَبَّاسِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الدَّغُولِيِّ فَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنَ شَيْبَانَ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا قُدَامَةَ السَّرَخْسِيَّ يَقُولُ قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ قُلْتُ لِسُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ لَوْ حَدَّثْتَنِي بِحَدِيثِ أَبِي قَيْسٍ عَنْ هُزَيْلٍ مَا قِبْلَتُهُ مِنْكَ فَقَالَ سُفْيَانُ الْحَدِيثُ ضَعِيفٌ۔

ثُمَّ أَسْنَدَ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ قَالَ لَيْسَ يُرْوَى هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ إِلَّا مِنْ رِوَايَةِ أَبِي قَيْسٍ الْأَوْدِيِّ وَأَبَى عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ أَنْ يُحَدِّثَ بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ وَقَالَ هُوَ مُنْكَرٌ۔
وَأَسْنَدَ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ أَيْضًا عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْمَدِينِيِّ قال قَالَ حَدِيثُ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ فِي الْمَسْحِ رَوَاهُ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ أَهْلُ الْمَدِينَةِ وَأَهْلُ الْكُوفَةِ وَأَهْلُ الْبَصْرَةِ وَرَوَاهُ هُزَيْلُ بْنُ شُرَحْبِيلَ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ إِلَّا أَنَّهُ قَالَ وَمَسَحَ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ فَخَالَفَ النَّاسَ وَأَسْنَدَ أَيْضًا عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ مَعِينٍ قَالَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ يَرْوُونَهُ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ غَيْرَ أَبِي قَيْسٍ۔
قَالَ الشَّيْخُ وَمَنْ يُصَحِّحُهُ يَعْتَمِدُ بَعْدَ تَعْدِيلِ أَبِي قَيْسٍ عَلَى كَوْنِهِ لَيْسَ مُخَالِفًا لِرِوَايَةِ الْجُمْهُورِ مُخَالَفَةً مُعَارِضَةً بَلْ هُوَ أَمْرٌ زَائِدٌ عَلَى مَا رَوَوْهُ وَلَا يُعَارِضُهُ وَلَا سِيَّمَا وَهُوَ طَرِيقٌ مُسْتَقِلٌّ بِرِوَايَةِ هُزَيْلٍ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ لَمْ يُشَارِكْ الْمَشْهُورَاتِ فِي سَنَدِهَا انْتَهَى كَذَا فِي نَصْبِ الرَّايَةِ ص ٧٥ ج ١۔

قُلْتُ قَوْلُهُ بَلْ هُوَ أَمْرٌ زَائِدٌ عَلَى مَا رَوَوْهُ إِلَخْ فِيهِ نَظَرٌ فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ رَوَوْا عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بِلَفْظِ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ وَأَبُو قَيْسٍ يُخَالِفُهُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيَرْوِي عَنْ هُزَيْلٍ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بِلَفْظِ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ وَالنَّعْلَيْنِ فَلَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَى مَا رَوَوْا بَلْ خَالَفَ مَا رَوَوْا نَعَمْ لَوْ رَوَى بِلَفْظِ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ وَالْجَوْرَبَيْنِ وَالنَّعْلَيْنِ لَصَحَّ أَنْ يُقَالَ إِنَّهُ رَوَى أَمْرًا زَائِدًا عَلَى مَا رَوَوْهُ وَإِذْ لَيْسَ فَلَيْسَ فَتَفَكَّرْ۔

فَإِذَا عَرَفْتَ هَذَا كُلَّهُ ظَهَرَ لَكَ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ حَكَمُوا عَلَى هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ بِأَنَّهُ ضَعِيفٌ مَعَ أَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا غَافِلِينَ عَنْ مَسْأَلَةِ زِيَادَةِ الثِّقَةِ فَحُكْمُهُمْ عِنْدِي وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى حُكْمِ التِّرْمِذِيِّ بِأَنَّهُ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ. (تحفة الأحوذي، ج:١ ص:٢٤١ مكتبة دار الحديث)۔

Allah knows best
Syed Hussain ibn Imamuddin
20 January 2020

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