Ruling on praying Jumu’ah at home

Question

Is it permissible to pray Jumu’ah at home as the local Masajid are closed due to the coronavirus?

Answer

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Fuqaha (Jurists) have mentioned some conditions for Jumu’ah salah to be valid. As long as those conditions are fulfilled Jumu’ah will be valid.

Among those conditions are:

  • The fuqaha of the four schools of thought are agreed that the khutbah and congregation are the necessary conditions for the validity of the Jumu’ah prayer.
  • According to Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy on him): A) There should be at least three men besides the Imam. B) It must be open to the public, i.e. general public should be allowed to join the prayer if they wish.
  • According to Imam Ash-Shafi’i and Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on them): There has to be at least forty men present, in order for Jumu’ah to be valid.
  • According to Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him): There has to be at least twelve men present for Jumu’ah.

One should apply to the conditions of the Imam he is following. If the above conditions are not met when intending to pray Jumu’ah at home then one must pray Zuhr salah instead of Jumu’ah. It is sufficient to perform Zuhr Salah in lieu of Jumu’ah Salah.

Note: As the deadly virus has spread quickly and is easily passing from person to person all Muslims and Citizens of the UK should adopt social distancing and other precautionary measures in accordance with the government and NHS guidelines.

فِيْ الفِقْه الإسْلامِيْ وَ أدِلّة: “الجَماعَة شَرْط لِمَا رَواهُ أبُو داود: “الْجُمعَة حَقّ واجِب عَلى كُلّ مُسْلِم فَي جَماعَة” وَ انْعَقَد الإجْماع عَلى ذالِك. وَ أقَلّ الجَماعَة عِندَ أبِي حَنِيفَة و مُحَمّد فَي الأصَح: ثَلاثَة رِجال سِوَى الإمَام”۔

وَ فِي المَوْسُوعَة الفِقْهَيّة: “وَاشْتَرَطَ الْحَنَفِيَّةُ أَنْ تُؤَدَّى بِإِذْنٍ عَامٍّ يَسْتَلْزِمُ الاِشْتِهَارَ، وَهُوَ يَحْصُل بِإِقَامَةِ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي مَكَان بَارِزٍ مَعْلُومٍ لِمُخْتَلَفِ فِئَاتِ النَّاسِ، مَعَ فَتْحِ الأَْبْوَابِ لِلْقَادِمِينَ إِلَيْهِ، قَال فِي تَنْوِيرِ الأَْبْصَارِ: فَلَوْ دَخَل أَمِيرٌ حِصْنًا أَوْ قَصْرَهُ وَأَغْلَقَ بَابَهُ، وَصَلَّى بِأَصْحَابِهِ لَمْ تَنْعَقِدْ۔

وَالْحِكْمَةُ مِنْ هَذَا الشَّرْطِ مَا قَالَهُ صَاحِبُ الْبَدَائِعِ: وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ هَذَا شَرْطًا؛ لأَِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى شَرَعَ النِّدَاءَ لِصَلاَةِ الْجُمُعَةِ بِقَوْلِهِ: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلاَةِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ۔
وَالنِّدَاءُ لِلاِشْتِهَارِ؛ وَلِذَا يُسَمَّى جُمُعَةً، لاِجْتِمَاعِ الْجَمَاعَاتِ فِيهَا فَاقْتَضَى أَنْ تَكُونَ الْجَمَاعَاتُ كُلُّهَا مَأْذُونِينَ بِالْحُضُورِ إِذْنًا عَامًّا تَحْقِيقًا لِمَعْنَى الاِسْمِ۔

وَاشْتَرَطَ الشَّافِعِيَّةُ وَالْحَنَابِلَةُ أَنْ لاَ يَقِل الْمُجْمِعُونَ عَنْ أَرْبَعِينَ رَجُلاً تَجِبُ فِي حَقِّهِمُ الْجُمُعَةُ. قَال صَاحِبُ الْمُغْنِي: أَمَّا الأَْرْبَعُونَ فَالْمَشْهُورُ فِي الْمَذْهَبِ أَنَّهُ شَرْطٌ لِوُجُوبِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَصِحَّتِهَا. . وَيُشْتَرَطُ حُضُورُهُمُ الْخُطْبَتَيْنِ۔

وَقَال الْمَالِكِيَّةُ: يُشْتَرَطُ حُضُورُ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ مِنْ أَهْل الْجُمُعَةِ”۔

Allah knows best
Syed Hussain ibn Imamuddin
24 March 2020

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