Ruling on divorce issued by a person who is forced

Question:

One has been forced to give ‘three talaqs’ to his wife, he has been threatened to the extent of being hospitalised or the one threatening ending in jail. Does this validate the talaq?

Answer:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

If one has been forced to divorce their wife and because of this compulsion he divorces her verbally even then divorce will take place.

This is based on the hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There are three matters in which seriousness is serious and joking is serious: marriage, divorce and taking back (one’s wife).” [Tirmidhi-1184]

However, if one divorces his wife in writing out of compulsion, without uttering it verbally then it will not be effective.

Allah knows best
Syed Hussain ibn Imamuddin
25 Rajab 1442 / 9 March 2021

Approved by
Mufti Muhammad Tahir Wadee (حفظه الله)
Darul Uloom Bury, UK

References

في الإختيار لتعليل المحتار : (وطلاق المكره واقع) لما روي: «أن امرأة اعتقلت زوجها وجلست على صدره ومعها شفرة وقالت: لتطلقني ثلاثا أو لأقتلنك، فناشدها الله أن لا تفعل فأبت فطلقها ثلاثا، ثم ذكر ذلك للنبي – عليه الصلاة والسلام – فقال: لا قيلولة في الطلاق» . ولأنه قصد الطلاق ولم يرض بالوقوع فصار كالهازل۔

وفي الدر المختار: (ويقع طلاق كل زوج بالغ عاقل) ولو تقديرا بدائع، ليدخل السكران (ولو عبدا أو مكرها) فإن طلاقه صحيح لا إقراره بالطلاق۔

وفي رد المحتار: وفي البحر أن المراد الإكراه على التلفظ بالطلاق، فلو أكره على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب لا تطلق لأن الكتابة أقيمت مقام العبارة باعتبار الحاجة ولا حاجة هنا، كذا في الخانية۔

وفي بدائع الصنائع: وذكر محمد بإسناده «أن امرأة اعتقلت زوجها وجلست على صدره ومعها شفرة فوضعتها على حلقه، وقالت: لتطلقني ثلاثا أو لأنفذنها فناشدها الله أن لا تفعل فأبت فطلقها ثلاثا فذكر لرسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقال لا قيلولة في الطلاق»۔
وكذا كونه جادا ليس بشرط فيقع طلاق الهازل بالطلاق واللاعب لما روي عن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم – أنه قال «ثلاث جدهن جد وهزلهن جد النكاح والطلاق والعتاق، وروي النكاح والطلاق والرجعة» وعن أبي الدرداء رضي الله عنه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال «من لعب بطلاق أو عتاق لزمه»۔

Published by Mufti Syed Hussain ibn Imamuddin

Mufti Syed Hussain (Founding director of An-Nidaa Academy) is a graduate of the very first Islamic Institute in Europe, Darul Uloom Al Arabiya Al Islamiya, Bury UK. Shaykh completed his diploma on Islamic theology in Darul Uloom Bury in 2007. Throughout the course he studied various subjects; Arabic language and grammar, Fiqh, Usoolul Fiqh, Balagah, Hadith (sihah sitta), Usoolul Hadith, and Tafsir. Among his respected Shuyukh and teachers were the likes of Shaykhul Hadith Yusuf Motala R.A. (1946 – 2019) founder of Darul Uloom Bury and many more institutes of its like, Shaykh Hashim, Shaykh Bilal Bawa, Mufti Shabbir, Mufti Muhammad Tahir Wadee, Shaykh Abdur Rahim Limbada and many others. May Allah preserve them. Shaykh devoted several years after graduation in studying Ifta course under the supervision of Shaykh Mufti Abdur Rahman (Shaykhul Hadith of Ishaatul Islam London, Khateeb of Shahjalal Mosque Manor park London and former Hadith teacher at Jamia Madania Kazir Bazar Sylhet, Bangladesh). Beside his teachers at Darul Uloom Bury he has also received ijazah (permission) of Hadith from the following Shuyukh: Shaykhul Hadith Shah Ahmad Shafi R.A (1920-2020), student of Shaykhul Islam Husain Ahmad Madani (r.a), and former Shaykhul Hadith and Rector of Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam Hathazari, Bangladesh. Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Rafi Usmani The Grand Mufti of Pakistan and President of Darul Uloom Karachi. Shaykhul Hadith Mukhlisur Rahman Qiampuri Shaykhul Hadith of Jamia Islamia Umarpur, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Respected Shaykh authorized Mufti Syed Hussain with a high sanad (chain of narrators) which is as follows: Shaykh Mukhlisur Rahman Qiampuri from Shaykh Abbas Ali khanpuri (r.a) from Shaykh Abdur Rahman Amruhi (r.a) from Shaykh Fadhlur Rahman Ganj Muradabadi (r.a) from Shaykh Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlvi (r.a) from Musnadul Hind Shaykh Shah Wali Ullah Dehlvi (r.a) (Allah’s mercy be upon them all). After many years of dedication in studying Shaykh Syed Hussain went on to teaching. In order to utilise the knowledge in an easier and more modern method Shaykh decided set up an online foundation by the name of An-Nidaa Academy. As an acting director Shaykh intends to broadcast his valuable knowledge and experience to the students of deen. May Allah accept his effort to provide deeni knowledge to the masses, the effort of his Shuyukh and teachers, the effort of the staff and the effort of the student who has set down on the path to acquire knowledge of deen. Aameen.

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